(ICSI) Intra cytoplasmic sperm injection
There are two major techniques followed from the ART. They are Conventional In Vitro fertilization and the Cytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI).
The natural phenomenon is that the single sperm will be entering into the egg, which was released during the menstrual cycle. The sperm must have to penetrate the wall of the egg, which is called as zona pellucid. And thus the sperms fuse with the female gametes.
Sometimes, due to various reasons, there may be reduction or absence of the female gametes. Or may be the female gametes will be poor in quality due to many reasons and thus the interaction becomes tough and the fertilization will be diminished.
There are two major techniques followed from the ART. They are Conventional In Vitro fertilization and the Cytoplasmic Sperm Injection.
Conventional IVF approach
The conventional IVF is simply based on the interactions between the eggs and sperms. After the egg retrieval, each oocyte and the set of cells that surround it (granulose cells) will be put in a drop of culture media containing a suspension of sperm at a given concentration. From this interaction a single sperm should penetrate into the egg to fertilize it.
The ICSI is based on the injection of the sperms into the eggs. This method will oversome some of the limitations like poor health of the sperm samples and the interaction deficiencies. Since the technique has the capability of overcoming such limitations, this has become a highly used technique in the recent era. With the help of an advanced micromanipulation station (including microscope, microinjectors and micropipettes) the sperm has to be individually selected and immobilized. During the microinjection the oocyte has to be held while the sperm is inserted and released inside the inner part of the oocyte. The day after the microinjection the signs of proper fertilization will be checked in each oocyte.